Saturday, 28 December 2013

Things Around Us

We see many things around us. Some move on their own, while others need something to move them. For example, a cockroach and a tiger move on their own, but a table and a chair move only when you push or pull them. So, we can divide things around us into two groups—living and non-living things. Plants, animals and human beings are living things. Chair, table, rock, sand, hills, etc. are non-living things.

Characteristics of Living Things :

Structural Organization :

The five levels of organization for living things pertain only to multicellular organisms and not to unicellular organisms. Unicellular organisms are only composed of one cell and act independently of other cells. In multicellular organisms, cells work and communicate with one another to perform the basic processes of life. 

- Cells : Cells are the tiniest living organisms and are the building blocks of organs. Cells are the first level of organization for living things. Examples of cells in living things include red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells and brain cells.

- Tissues : Tissues are made of cells and are the second level of organization for living things. The four main types of tissues found in the human body are muscle, nerve, epithelial and connective tissue. The three types of muscle tissue are smooth muscle tissue, skeletal muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.

- Organs : Organs are the third level of organization for living things and are composed of tissue. Examples of organs in animals include the heart, lung, brain kidneys and stomach. Examples of organs in plants include roots, stems, flowers and the stamen.

- Organ Systems : Organ systems are groups of at least two organs that work in combination to perform specific tasks for the organism they're a part of. The eleven organ systems found in the human body are the digestive system, circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system, endocrine system, excretory system, immune system, reproductive system, respiratory system, muscular system and integumentary system.

Energy :

Plants and animals, use various forms of energy for the development of their bodies. The complete use of chemical energy they use to carry out their life processes is called metabolism. Plants use the energy from the sun or solar energy to carry out photosynthesis which is the process for making their food (glucose). They are hence known as Autotrophs. Animals and humans, however cannot produce their own food and are dependent on plants and other animals for their food and hence they are called the Heterotrophs.

Growth :

One of the rule of nature is growth which is followed by all life forms. As development is an involuntary process, every cell in a living entity has to age. Growth and change is a part of all living organisms as cells divide to give rise to new and identical ones. Sometimes due to some genetic defects, during differentiation, some cells mutate to form other types of cells and result in complex organisms. This process of constant development and growth is also called organogenesis.

Reproduction :

All organisms reproduce to continue their species' life. Plants and animals have a reproductive system which is completely developed at puberty. There are two types of reproduction prevalent in nature, viz. sexual and asexual. The sexual reproduction involves the combination of genetic material to give rise to a single zygote that further develops into a bigger organism. The asexual reproduction involves the splitting of one organism or cell to form two separate individuals of the same species.

Organization :

Every living thing is highly organized when it comes to the pattern or built of the body. Plants as well as animals have very complicated cell structures arranged very uniquely in the different organs. The cells form organelles, and organelles form organs. The organs make up the various parts of the organism. This is a network which every cell follows.

Death :

Whatever is created has to come to an end. Both plants and animals have limited life spans during which they go through their life processes like development and reproduction. As the cells age over a particular time period, these overgrown cells start becoming weak and lose their functions. They can't survive the atmospheric pressures and give in to them eventually. This is called death. They all have a particular age they live up to and then surrender to nature.

Other Characteristics :

Some of the other characteristics include homeostasis, which is the process to maintain stable internal conditions for survival. These conditions have to be maintained for body temperature, heartbeat, water content, etc. When the homeostasis is regulated, the metabolism of the body is regulated and the living things stay healthy and fit. Movement is also one such characteristic. These movements depend on each species of plants and animals. Adaptation and defense are considered as common traits too. Every living entity has to adapt to certain conditions for survival and if it can't then it won't survive. It is their right to protect themselves from predators.

Evolution is a type of miracle that has accompanied us for billions of years and is still in process. Eventually all living entities complement each other through their characteristics and that is what Darwin's theory of evolution is all about.

Environment :

Environment is the sum total of all surroundings of a living organism, including natural forces and other living things, which provide conditions for development and growth as well as of danger and damage. An ecosystem is a biological environment and all the living and nonliving components of that environment. The living components are referred to as the biotic components, while the nonliving components are referred to as abiotic. The biotic and abiotic factors of an ecosystem are intertwined, as the interaction between the two factors determines the composition of the ecosystem. 

Biotic Components : 
Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem. A biotic factor is any living component that affects another organism, including animals that consume the organism in question, and the living food that the organism consumes. Biotic factors include human influence. 

- Plants : If you're not a microbe and you're not an animal, chances are you are a plant. There are loads of species of plants on Earth. Just as there is a system of classification for animals, there is also a system of classification for plants. Because plants adapt so well to any climate, scientists need a way to organize the hundreds of thousands of species.

- Animals : Animals cannot make their own food, as green plants do, thus they are called heterotrops. Both animals and plants need substances called nutrients in order to grow. Plants absorb nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium from the soil. These nutrients enter the bodies of animals when they eat plants or the flesh of other animals. After these plants and animals die, their bodies decomposes and nutrients reach back to the soil.

Abiotic Components :
In biology, abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment. Abiotic phenomena underlie all of biology. Abiotic factors, while generally downplayed, can have enormous impact on evolution. Abiotic components are aspects of geodiversity.They can also be recognised as "abiotic pathogens".

From the viewpoint of biology, abiotic influences may be classified as light or more generally radiation, temperature, water, the chemical surrounding composed of the terrestrial atmospheric gases, as well as soil. The macroscopic climate often influences each of the above. Not to mention pressure and even sound waves if working with marine, or deep underground, biome.

- Climate : Climate includes the rainfall, temperature and wind patterns that occur in an area, and is the most important abiotic component of a grassland ecosystem. Temperature, in tandem with precipitation, determines whether grasslands, forests, or some combination of these two, form. The amount and distribution of the rainfall an area receives in a year influences the types and productivity of grassland plants.

- Parent Material and Soil : Parent material is the geological material that lies on top of the bedrock and is the foundation on which soil has developed. Much of the parent material underlying BC's grasslands was deposited as the last ice sheets melted away. The actual composition of the material at any specific location depends on how and where it was deposited in relation to the ice. In the Rocky Mountain Trench, for example, some material was deposited under a moving glacier, while on the Chilcotin plateau some was deposited under a stationary ice sheet; in many places throughout the grasslands material was carried and deposited by water on, in, or under the ice.

Habitat :

Thus in nature, biotic and abiotic components are closely interrelated. Biotic components interact with one another too. A group of independent organisms that live in same region and interact with one another form a biotic community. A biotic community includes plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Master YashRaj Kandya
Big RJ Neetu On BigFM 92.7 Indore
Master YashRaj Kandya
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Monday, 23 December 2013

Privacy Policy

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Master YashRaj Kandya
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Master YashRaj Kandya
Big RJ Neetu On BigFM 92.7 Indore
Master YashRaj Kandya
Asia's Youngest AeroSoft Certified Blogger
Student of Class 6
National Public School Indore 452005

Saturday, 14 December 2013

Look Within To Find Happiness

A close friend said' "If I could only figure this out, I think I could find happiness." I have heard this before and will hear it again I am sure.

Many people want to believe that finding happiness is all about finding something else they want. Not many have ever found long term happiness by achieving another goal. The answer to finding happiness is to look within.

In other words, happiness is completely an inside job. The most important piece to finding happiness is to comprehend happiness is a choice and not the result of an experience. If all happiness could be found as the result of an acquisition, meeting a goal, or having anything, then a person's happiness would always be subject to something else.

Remember this: one definition of happiness is simply the absence of an opposite emotion whether it is pain, sadness or something else. If the opposite emotions are never experienced then happiness can never be experienced either. Think about it like this: bad times allow you to appreciate good times; hunger allows you to appreciate food; and sadness allows you to appreciate and experience happiness.

The dictionary defines happiness as enjoying, showing, or marked by pleasure, satisfaction or joy.

How often do you hear... "I'll be happy when"? When I get that job, I'll be happy. I'll be happy when I find a life partner. I'd be happy if I had more money.

These, and all the other "if I had", scenarios are following the same reasoning; that happiness is based on external circumstances.

If you base your happiness on external circumstances, you will continuously fail to find happiness. There will always, always be another external circumstance. There will always be another dollar, another job, another house, or another partner. Better, more, else.

To break this vicious cycle, we must find our happiness somewhere else. That somewhere else is within. We have been given everything we need to be happy.

Allow yourself to choose happiness. If life was perfect would you be happy? Life is perfect because we create it with our choices. Since we can create life, we can create happiness - and how much better can it get?

When we can accept that life is perfect as it is and that our lives are the sum total of everything that has happened to this instant, only then can we accept the joy and happiness we deserve.

I realize that this concept is very difficult for some to accept. However, the alternative to being happy now is to spend the rest of our lives seeking happiness as if happiness was an item to be bought or found.

It's not. Just remember the saying - Don't worry - be happy! 


Surbhi Maheshwari [MBA Fin / Mktg ] 
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Friday, 29 November 2013

Constructors in C++


A constructor is a special method that is created when the object is created or defined. This particular method holds the same name as that of the object and it initializes the instance of the object whenever that object is created. The constructor also usually holds the initializations of the different declared member variables of its object. Unlike some of the other methods, the constructor does not return a value, not even void.

When you create an object, if you do not declare a constructor, the compiler would create one for your program; this is useful because it lets all other objects and functions of the program know that this object exists. This compiler created constructor is called the default constructor. If you want to declare your own constructor, simply add a method with the same name as the object in the public section of the object. When you declare an instance of an object, whether you use that object or not, a constructor for the object is created and signals itself. The main use of constructors is to initialize objects. The function of initialization is automatically carried out by the use of a special member function called a constructor. 

General Syntax of Constructor :

A constructor is a special member function that takes the same name as the class name. The syntax generally is as given below:

{ arguments};

The default constructor for a class X has the form

In the above example, the arguments are optional. The constructor is automatically named when an object is created. A constructor is named whenever an object is defined or dynamically allocated using the "new" operator. A constructor is declared without a return value, that also excludes void.
Therefore, when implemented, do not return a value:

Constructor Example :

class rectangle {              // A simple class
   int height;
   int width;
   rectangle(void);            // with a constuctor,
   ~rectangle(void);           // and a destructor

rectangle::rectangle(void)     // constuctor
   height = 6;
   width = 6;

The Constructor Initializer :

A constructor does not exist simply for cosmetic reasons. It can be used to initialize the member variables of an object. Therefore, a constructor provides a valuable alternative to a method initializer, the type of method we saw earlier.

To use a constructor to initialize the member variables of an object, provide as arguments the necessary variables that you intend to initialize. You do not have to initialize all member variables in the constructor, only those that need to be initialized. In fact, you should initialize only those members that you think the other objects or functions would need to provide when calling this object; this means that your object may have member variables that, either the external objects or functions do not need to modify (or access) or the member variable will be initialized later when called from the needed object or function.

There are several forms in which a constructor can take its shape namely : 

Default Constructor :

A constructor is declared without a return value, that also excludes void. Therefore, when implemented, do not return a value:

using namespace std;

struct TBook
    TBook();    // Constructor
    cout << "I see a book...\n";
int main()
    TBook B;

    return 0;

This would produce:

I see a book…
This book constructor is a programmer created constructor and is empty. You might find it sometimes convenient to create your own constructor because, whether you create an empty constructor or not, this does not negatively impact your program but makes it more lively and allows other parts of the program to conveniently call the object using its constructor. A constructor is easily implemented once you have created one.

Copy constructor :

This constructor takes one argument, also called one argument constructor. The main use of copy constructor is to initialize the objects while in creation, also used to copy an object. The copy constructor allows the programmer to create a new object from an existing one by initialization.

For example to invoke a copy constructor the programmer writes:

Exforsys e3(e2);


Exforsys e3=e2;

Both the above formats can be sued to invoke a copy constructor. 

For Example :

Sample Code-

    #include <iostream>
    using namespace std;
    class Exforsys
            int a;
            { }
            Exforsys(int w)
        Exforsys(Exforsys& e)
            cout << " Example of Copy Constructor";
        void result()
            cout<< a;
    void main()
        Exforsys e1(50);
        Exforsys e3(e1);
        cout<< "ne3=";e3.result();

In the above the copy constructor takes one argument an object of type Exforsys which is passed by reference.

Some important points about constructors :

   - A constructor takes the same name as the class name.
   - The programmer cannot declare a constructor as virtual or static, nor can the programmer declare a constructor as const, volatile, or const volatile.
   - No return type is specified for a constructor.
   - The constructor must be defined in the public. The constructor must be a public member.
   - Overloading of constructors is possible.

Constructor Overloading :

Like an ordinary method, a construction can be overloaded. This means that you can have different constructors following the rules of overloading a function. Since we saw that a constructor can be used to initialize the member variables of its object, you can use multiple constructors to apply different initializations.

Constructors in C++.


Preeti Bagad [BE(CS)] 
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Thursday, 28 November 2013

IO package in Java

IO package in Java :

The Java Input/Output (I/O) is a part of java . io package. The java . io  package contains a relatively large number of classes that support  input and output operations. The classes in the package are primarily abstract classes and stream-oriented that define methods and subclasses which allow bytes to be read from and written to files or other input and output sources. The InputStream and OutputStream  are central classes in the package which are used for reading from and writing to byte streams, respectively.

Input and Output - Source and Destination :

The terms "input" and "output" can sometimes be a bit confusing. The input of one part of an application is often the output of another. Is an OutputStream a stream where output is written to, or output comes out from (for you to read)? After all, an InputStream outputs its data to the reading program, doesn't it? Personally, I found this a bit confusing back in the day when I first started out learning about Java IO.

In an attempt to clear out this possible confusion, I have tried to put some different names on input and output to try to link them conceptually to where the input comes from, and where the output goes.

Java's IO package mostly concerns itself with the reading of raw data from a source and writing of raw data to a destination. The most typical sources and destinations of data are these:

   - Files
   - Pipes
   - Network Connections
   - In-memory Buffers (e.g. arrays)
   -, System.out, System.error


InputStream :

The InputStream class is used for reading the data such as a byte and array of bytes from an input source. An input source can be a file, a string, or memory that may contain the data. It is an abstract class that defines the programming interface for all input streams that are inherited from it. An input stream is automatically opened when you create it. You cans explicitly close a stream with the close( ) method, or let it be closed implicitly when the object is found as a garbage.

The subclasses inherited from the InputStream class can be seen in a hierarchy manner shown below:

InputStream is inherited from the Object class. Each class of the InputStreams provided by the package is intended for a different purpose.

OutputStream :

The OutputStream class is a sibling to InputStream that is used for writing byte and array of bytes to an output source. Similar to input sources, an output source can be anything such as a file, a string, or memory containing the data. Like an input stream, an output stream is automatically opened when you create it. You can explicitly close an output stream with the close( ) method, or let it be closed implicitly when the object is garbage collected.

The classes inherited from the OutputStream class can be seen in a hierarchy structure shown below:

How Files and Streams Work :

Java uses streams to handle I/O operations through which the data is flowed from one location to another. For example, an InputStream can flow the data from a disk file to the  internal memory and an OutputStream can flow the data from the internal memory to a disk file. The disk-file may be a text file or a binary file. When we work with a text file,  we use a character stream where one character is treated as per byte on disk. When we work with a binary file,  we use a binary stream.

The working process of the I/O streams can be shown in the given diagram.

Java IO Purposes and Features :

The Java IO classes, which mostly consists of streams and readers / writers, are addressing various purposes. That is why there are so many different classes. The purposes addressed are summarized below:

   - File Access,
   - Network Access,
   - Internal Memory Buffer Access,
   - Inter-Thread Communication (Pipes),
   - Buffering,
   - Filtering,
   - Parsing,
   - Reading and Writing Text (Readers / Writers)
   - Reading and Writing Primitive Data (long, int etc.)
   - Reading and Writing Objects

These purposes are nice to know about when reading through the Java IO classes. They make it somewhat easier to understand what the classes are targeting.

IO package in Java.


Preeti Bagad [BE(CS)] 
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